NURSING EXAM PORTAL: Notes

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Showing posts with label Notes. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Notes. Show all posts

Friday, 26 November 2021

COLOSTOMY

November 26, 2021 0
COLOSTOMY

 COLOSTOMY

Definition:- Artificial opening of the colon (large intestine) through the anterior abdominal wall.

Purpose:- escape the flatus and stool.

Indication:-

1.Intestinal Obstruction.

2.Rectal Tumor and cancer.

3.Intestinal Cancer.

4. Imperforate of anus

Classification:-

According to Placement:-

1.Wet Colostomy 

2.Dry Colostomy

Wet Colostomy:- 

  • stool is passed out in liquid form by the client.
  • Incision is making in ascending colon.
  • ascending wet colostomy is performing for short term/Temporary.
  • Time:- 6-8 weeks.
  • Opening :-opening of colostomy on the right side of abdomen .

Dry Colostomy.

  • Incision is making in sigmoid colon.
  • Stool is passing out in normal form.
  • sigmoid colostomy is performing for long time or permanent based.
  • Opening:- end colostomy or left side of abdominal.

Procedure:-

  • nurse role before procedure precaution.
  • stop the high fiber diet before 2-3 day from procedure.
  • doctor explain procedure.
  • doctor collect consent.
  • collect investigation and report of patient.
  • NBM 8-12 hours before colostomy to prevent risk of aspiration.
  • prepare part.
  • best time for part preparation(before 30 minute form the surgery)
  • Site prepare:- just below the nipple to mid thigh.
  • Solution:- 7.5% betadine or 7.5% savlon.

Position:-

  • 1.Supine position:-during general anesthesia use in surgery
  • 2. Trendelenburg:-when spinal anesthesia use during surgery.

Care of colostomy:-

  • Check the vital sign.
  • Provide side line or lateral position.
  • Clean the outer site of stoma with betadine gauze then use dry gauze.
  • Advantage:-prevent the growth of bacteria and microorganism.
  • prevent skin irritation due to stool and HCL produce irritation.
  • maintain soft dry to the stoma.
  • cover to the stoma with a water  patch.

Advantage:-

  • to prevent leakage of stool.
  • water should be use/cut 1/8 inch more diameter than stoma.
  • connect colostomy bag with ring of water.
  • provide psychological support due to disturbed body image of client.

observe form stool:-

  1. Ascending colon:-Liquid
  2. Transverse:- Semi solid
  3. Sigmoid:-Normal

Observe the color of stoma:-

  • Bright red or pink:-Normal finding.
  • Pale Pink:-Normal in anemic patient.
  • Black or dusky:-abnormal finding due to compromised of blood circulation.(inform to doctor)
  • Malodorous/foul smell form stoma upto  72 hr. after colostomy is normal finding.
  • foul smell form stoma after 72 hr. due to infection then nurse inform to doctor.
  • colostomy bag empty when fill upto 1/3 lelvel.
  • change the water and colostomy bag in 72 hrs in or 3 days.





Saturday, 13 November 2021

MASK VENTURE MASK

November 13, 2021 0
MASK VENTURE MASK

MASK:-VENTURE MASK

1.Use in severe hypoxia to the client.

2. 8-10 Liter per minute flow rate delivered by mask.

3.avoid less than 5 Liter per minute flow rate by mask Except Venture mask.

Venture Mask:-

1.Use according to color coding.

2.Also known as higher flow mask.

3.Venture mask deliver accurate concentration of oxygen to the patient.

4.Blue:- 2 Liter per minute and 24 %

5.White:- 4 Liter per minute and 28 %

6.Orange:- 6 Liter per minute and 31%

7.Yellow:-8 Liter per minute and 35%

8.Red:-10 Liter per minute and 40%

9.Green:-12-15 Liter per minute and 60%


Friday, 12 November 2021

NASAL CANNULA

November 12, 2021 0
NASAL CANNULA

 NASAL CANNULA

1. 1.5 cm long probe are insert in both nostril.

2.Flow Rate:- 1-4 L/Min.

3.In advance stage:-1-6 L/Min.

4.Concentration:-24-44%

5.Every 2nd hourly replace nasal cannula to prevent dry mucosa and ulcer.

6.Use in COPD use for long time oxygen inhalation.


NASAL CATHETER

November 12, 2021 0
NASAL CATHETER

 NASAL CATHETER

1.The nasal catheter most commonly useful method use in clinical practice.

2.Flow Rate 1-6/Minute.

3.Concentration 22-30% oxygen is delivered by nasal catheter.

4.Procedure:-

Position of Patient:-Rose Position where patient is lying on back with hyper extended of head(1st Priority)

5.High fowler position (2nd Priority)

6.1-2 Liter/ min by nasal cannula in COPD Patient.

7.Measure length of nasal catheter:- tip of nose to ear lobe(10 cm)

8.Replace the nasal catheter of nasal catheter every 8 hourly to prevent stenosis  by mucus.

9.Catherter:-4-6 French.

10.Nasal catheter insert in left nostril and avoid right nostril increase risk of injury. 


Sunday, 28 April 2019

CHOLESTEROL LDL HDL

April 28, 2019 0
CHOLESTEROL LDL HDL

CHOLESTEROL LDL HDL

Cholesterol can,t dissolve in the blood. it has to be transported to and from the cells by carries called lipoproteins.Low Density Lipoprotein,or LDL, is Known as "Bad" Cholesterol. High- density Lipoprotein or HDL, IS KNOWN AS "GOOD" Cholesterol.

LDL/LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN:-
When too much LDL(BAD) cholesterol circulates in blood, it can slowly build up in the inner wals of the arteries that feed the heart and brain, if a clot forms and blocks a narrowed artery, heat attack or stroke can result.
HDL/HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN:-
About 1/4 th to 1/3 cholesterol carried by HDL. HDL cholesterol is known as GOOD cholesterol,because high levels of HDL seem to protect against heat attack.Low levels of HDL <40 mg/dl also increase to risk of heart disease.
                                                                                                                     
Normal lab values:-
LDL:-<100 mg/dl
HDL:->50 mg/dl                                                                                                      source-vikaspedia

Blood Sampling Vial Colour Codding

April 28, 2019 0
Blood Sampling Vial Colour Codding

BLOOD SAMPLING VIAL

As we Know there are many types of blood tubes used for lab investigations.
1.Black Top Tube:- Sodium Citrate 20% used as anticoagulant for test ESR.
2.Purple Top Tube:-EDTA(Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid) used as Anticoagulant for test Hb,CBC.
3.Red Top Tube:-Plain vial Contains in vial Blood coagulate result in Serum (take one Hour)
4.Green Top Tube:-small sillica beadsplasma used for biochemistry investigation like renal,electrolytes,ammonia.
5.Grey Top Tube:-Tube contains Fluoride oxalate. that inhibits glycolysis used for test Glucose.
6.Red Top Tube:-contains clot activator like small sillica beads for speed up coagulation.(take 20 min.)
7.Yellow Top Tube:-contains small silica beads with separator gel resulting sample serum.
8.Blue Top Tube:-Sodium Citrate 10% used Coagulation investigation like PT-INR,APTT. 

Monday, 18 February 2019

General Awareness For Esic Staff Nurse

February 18, 2019 0
General Awareness For Esic Staff Nurse

COLOSTOMY

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