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Showing posts with label IMMUNITY(VACCINES) I. Show all posts
Showing posts with label IMMUNITY(VACCINES) I. Show all posts

Saturday, 8 July 2017

IMMUNITY (vaccine) I

Vaccines provide active immunity to the body by stimulating the immune system which produces antibodies against disease producing organisms vaccines can be divided into two types:-
  
                           A.Live Attenuated 
                           B. killed formulations
A. Live Attenuated :- the live attenuated vaccines are from disease causing viruses or bacteria that have been weakened under laboratory conditions. They replicate in a vaccinated individual but because they are weak they cause either no disease or only a mild form of the disease. Examples are Bcg, Measles and the oral polio vaccine.

B. Inactivated  or killed vaccines:- on the other hand are produced by viruses or bacteria and then inactivated with heat or chemicals.They cannot grow in a vaccinated individual and so cannot cause the disease, They are less effective then Live vaccines, requiring multiple doses to full protection as well as booster doses to maintain immunity.

Examples:-
* whole cell :- Pertussis 
* Fractional protein based :- diphtheria toxoid , tetanus toxoid.
*Recombinant Hepatitis B

                       MILESTONES IN THE IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM IN INDIA
1. 1978:- * Expanded program of immunization (EPI)
               * BCG,DPT,OPV,TYPHOID.
               * Limited to maintain urban areas.

2.1985:-* Universal Immunization program (UPI) Introduced.
             * Expanded to entire country.
             * Measles added.
             * close monitoring of < 1 year group .
 Q1. WHICH VACCINE ADDED IN UIP (UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME) ?
A. BCG        B. DPT        C. OPV         D. MEASLES
ANS. D (MEASLES)

3. 1990:- Vitamine-A supplementation .
4. 1992:- (CSSM) Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme. 
5. 1995:- Polio national Immunization days,
6. 1997:- RCH I (Reproduction and Child Health Programme)
7. 2005:- RCH II and National Rural Health Mission(NRHM)

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