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Showing posts with label CURRENT AFFAIRS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label CURRENT AFFAIRS. Show all posts

Friday, 1 June 2018

NIPAH VIRUS

June 01, 2018 0
NIPAH VIRUS

NIPAH VIRUS (Niv)

Recently As per the National Institute of Virology,Pune, NIPAH VIRUS is the main cause of more than 10 deaths in KERALA.
The emergence of Nipah virus infection into the pig population and subsequently into the human population is believed to be due to changes in ecological conditions. In Malaysia, A major NiV outbreak occurred in pigs and humans from September 1998 t April 1999 that resulted in infection of 265 and death of 105 persons. The disease was recorded in the form of a major outbreak in India in 2001 and then a small incidence in 2007,both the Outbreaks in Bengal only in humans without any involvement of pigs. There were series of human Nipah incidences in Bangladesh from 2001 till 2013 almost every year with mortality exceeding 70 percent.


What is Nipah Virus?
Nipah is a viral zoonotic disease caused by NiV of Henipavirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family.Pteropus bats(fruit eating species. popularly known as flying foxes ) are supposed to be the natural hosts of the virus.

TRANSMISSION:-
The direct contact with pigs or fresh pig products was responsible for NiV transmission to humans, confirming preliminary observations by health workers. The findings in the pig’s respiratory system could explain the severe pulmonary symptoms in these animals and provide support for the suggestion that aerosol spread of NiV from pig to human represents an important mode of transmission .
reported in human beings in Bangladesh from 2001 to 2013 and two outbreaks in India  but none had showed any involvement of pigs. Investigation of different Nipah outbreaks in Bangladesh have identified different routes of transmission including climbing trees (probably contaminated with infected date palm sap), contact with sick persons, and contact with sick animals. Another way of NiV getting transmitted from P. giganteus to humans recorded in Bangladesh is food-borne. Fruit bats (P. giganteus) are a nuisance to date palm sap collectors because the bats drink the sap at night from the clay pots used to collect the sap. The investigations by Luby et al.  suggested that NiV was transmitted from P. giganteus to persons through drinking fresh date palm sap. Date palm sap is a national delicacy that is enjoyed by millions of Bangladeshis each winter. However, the sap is occasionally contaminated with NiV-infected bat urine or saliva that contains a sufficient dose of NiV to be fatal to humans. In India, in a bat sample survey, NiV RNA was detected in a liver homogenate of P. giganteus captured in Myanaguri, West Bengal
 SIGN AND SYMPTOMS:-
This infection can occur in humans without showing any symptoms. However, it is essential for people to look out for influenza.FEVER, SORE THROAT, HEADACHES, VOMITING AND MUSCLE PAIN(MYALGIA) ARE SOME OF THE COMMON SINGS.
The infection progresses to acute respiratory infection causing inflammation of the brain tissue. The symptoms further lead to drowsiness, dizziness, altered consciousness and neurological sings, In severe cases, seizures and encephalitis occur, progressing to a state of coma within 4 to 48 hours.

PREVENTION:-
Avoid close (unprotected) physical contact with infected people
- Wear NH95-grade and higher masks
- Wash hands regularly with soap
- Avoid consuming partly eaten fruits or unpasteurised fruit juices
- Avoid being around anima pens
- Boil freshly collected date palm juice before consuming
- Thoroughly wash and peel fruits before consuming
- Maintain your and children's personal hygiene
- Cover your household properly

TREATMENT:-
Currently, there is no vaccine or drug available for humans or animals. The primay treatment is intensive supportive care for people suffering from severe respiratory and neurologic complication.
From contracting the disease to the onset of the symptoms, the incubation period ranges between to  days some case, an incubation period of 45 days has also been reported.

People are expected to make full recovery after surviving acute encephalitis, However., surviviors
have shown long tern neurological condition like seizure disorder and personalitychanges After recovery, a small number of people are seen to have relapsed or developed delayed onsen encephalitis.(Referance:-ncbi and economics times)

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