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Showing posts with label COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING. Show all posts
Showing posts with label COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING. Show all posts

Monday, 4 February 2019

Important Health Days

HEALTH DAYS

January:-                                                              
1. 12 National Youth Day
2.  31 Anti Leprosy Day
February:-
1. 4 World Cancer Day
March:-
1. 4 National Safety Day
2. 8 International Women's Day
3. 12 World Kidney Day
4. 15 World Consumer Rights Day
5.  22 World Disable Day
6. 23 World Water day
7. 24 World Tuberculosis Day
April:-
1. 7 World Health Day
2. 11 World Parkinson Day
3. 11 National safe motherhood Day
4. 17 World Hemophilia Day
5. 22 Earth Day
May:-
1. 05 World Asthma Day
2.  08World Thalassemia Day
3. 12  International Nurses Day
4. 19 World Hepatitis Day
5. 28 International Day of Action for Woman's Health
6. 31 Anti Tobacco Day
June:-
1. 05 World Environment Day
2. 14 World Blood Donor Day
3. 17 World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought
4. 26 International Day Against Drug Abuse and illegal Trafficking
July:-
1. 01 Doctor's Day
2. 11 World Population Day
August:-
1. 01-07 World Breast Feeding Day
2. 12 International Youth Day
3. 15 Independence Day
September:-
1. 01-07 National Nutrition Week
2. 04-11 World Pharmacy Week
3. 08 Literacy Day
4. 16 World Ozone Day
October:-
1. 11 World Mental Health Day
2. 12 World Arthritis Day
3. 16 World Anesthesia Day
4. 20 World Malaria Day
5. 21 World Iodine Deficiency Disorder Day
6. 24 UN Day
7. 31 Universal Children Day
November:-
1. 10 World Immunization Day
2. 13 World Alzheimer Day
3.  14 Children's Day
December:-
1. 01 World AIDS Day
2. 03 World Disability Day
3. 10 Human Right Day

source www.rajswasthya.nic


Sunday, 9 July 2017

COLD CHAIN

The cold chain is a system of storing and transporting vaccines of recommended temperatures from the point of manufacture to the point of use the key elements of cold chain are:-


* PERSONNEL:- To manage vaccine store and distribution.
* EQUIPMENTS:- To store and transport vaccine and to monitor Temperature.
*PROCUDURES:- To ensure that vaccines are stored and transported at appropriate temperatures.

Keeping vaccine at the right temperature is not an easy task, but the consequencys of not doing so can be disastrous once vaccine potency is lost, it cannot be regained , the damage vaccines must be destroyed, leading to inadequate vaccine stoks and wastage of expensive vaccine, moreover, children and women who receive a vaccine that is not potent are not protected.


** AT THE PHC LEVEL ALL VACCINES ARE KEPT IN THE ILR FOR A PERIOD OF ONE MONTH AT TEMPERATURE OF +2 C TO +8 C. 

** VACCINE SENSITIVITY TO HEAT:-BCG (after reconstitution) >OPV >MEASLES> DPT > BCG (before reconstitution) > DT/TT/HEPB/JE.

** VVM:-( VACCINE VIAL MONITOR):- A VVM is a label containing a heat sensitive material which is placed on a vaccine vial to register cumulative heat exposure over time. The combined effects of time and temperature cause the inner square of the vvm to darken gradually and irreversibly. before opening a vial check the status of the vial vvm. 


STAGES OF VVM:-
1. THE INNER SQUARE IS LIGHTER THAN THE OUTER CIRCLE. IF THE EXPIRY DATE HAS NOT BEEN PASSED:- USE THE VACCINE.

2. THE INNER SQUARE IS STILL LIGHTER THAN THE OUTER CIRCLE IF THE EXPIRY DATE HAS NOT BEEN PASSED:- USE THE VACCINE.

DISCARD POINT:- 

3. THE COLOR OF THE INNER SQUARE MATCHES THE COLOR OF THE OUTER CIRCLE :- DO NOT USE THE VACCINE.

BEYOND THE DISCARD POINT:-

4.BEYOND THE DISCARD POINT THE COLOR OF THE SQUARE IS DARKEN THAN THE OUTER CIRCLE : DO NOT USE THE VACCINE.

PLACEMENT OF VACCINES IN ILR :- 
(TOP TO BOTTOM)           1. DILUTES
                                             2. HEP. B
                                             3. PANTAVALENT
                                             4. DPT
                                             5. TT
                                             6. BCG
                                             7.MEASLES
                                             8.OPV

Q2. Which vaccine placed at bottom in ILR?
A. TT    B. BCG   C. MEASLES    D. OPV    
ans. OPV (D)

Q3. Which vaccine place at bottom in ILR?
A. MEASLES  B. TT  C. BCG  D. DPT 
ans. MEASLES (A)


                                                                   
                                                         COLD CHAIN ILR AT PHC
               Vaccine
     TEMPERATURE AT PHC
               BCG
+2C TO +8 C
               OPV
+2C TO +8 C
               MEASLES
+2C TO +8 C
               DPT
+2C TO +8 C
               HEPATITIS B
+2C TO +8 C
               DT
+2C TO +8 C
               TT
+2C TO +8 C

IMMUNITY (VACCINE) III

                                      REACTIONS OF VACCINES
    VACCINE
                                   REACTION
          INTERVAL
     
     BCG
1.SUPPURATIVE ADENITITIS
2.BCG OSTEITIS.
3.DISSEMINATED BCG INFECTION.
1.2-6 MONTHS
2.UPTO SEVERAL YEAR
3.1-12 MONTHS.
    HIB      
NONE KNOWN
-
    HEP B
ANAPHYLAXSIS
0-1 HOUR
    MEASLES/MMR
1.FEBRILE SEIZURES
2.THROMBOCYTOPENIA (LOW PLATELETS)
3.ANAPHYLAXSIS
1.5-12 DAYS
2.60 DAYS
3.0-1 HOUR
   OPV
VACCCINE ASSOCIATED PARALYTIC POLIOMYELITIS
4-30 DAYS
 TETANUS
1.BACTERAIAL NEURITIS
2.ANAPHYLAXSIS
3.STERILE ABSCESS
1.2-28 DAYS
2.0-1 HOUR
3.1-6 WEEKS
DPT
1.PERSISTANT (.3HR.) INCONSOLABLE SCREAMING.
2.SEIZURES.
3.HYPOTONIC HYPORESPONSIVE EPISODE (HHC)
4.ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK
1.0-48 HOUR
2.0-3 DAYS
3.0-24 HOUR
4.0-1 HOUR
JE(JAPANES ENCEPHALITIS)
<![if !supportLists]>1.      <![endif]>SERIOUS ALLERGIC REACTION
<![if !supportLists]>2.      <![endif]>NEUROLOGICAL EVENT
1.0-2WEEKS
2.0-2 WEEKS
                             TREATMENT FOR VACCINE REACTION CASES
         REACTION
              TREATMENT
          VACCINE NAME
*VACCINE ASSOCIATED PARALYTIC POLIOMYELITIS
NO SPECIFIC TREATMENT AVAILABLE: SUPPORTIVE CARE
OPV
*ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVE REACTION
SELF  LIMITING ANTI HISTAMINS MAY BE USEFUL
ALL
*ANAPHYLAXSIS
ADRENALINE INJECTION
ALL
*DISSEMINATED BCSG INFECTION
SHOULD BE TREATED WITH ANTI TUBERCULOSIS REGIMENS INCLUDING ISONIAZID AND RIFAMPICINE
BCG
*ENCEPHALOPATHY
NO SPECIFIC TREATMENT AVAILABLE: SUPPORTIVE CARE
MEASLES /  PERTUSIS
*FEVER
SYMPTOMATIC: PARACETAMOL GIVE EXTRA ORAL FLUID,TEPID SPONGING,OR BATH. IN CASE OF HIGH AND EXTREME FEVER,OTHER SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SHOULD BE SOUGHT AND REPORTED/MANAGED AS APPROPRIATE.
   
ALL
*HYPOTONIC HYPORESPONSIVE EPISODE
THE EPISODE IS TRANSIENT AND SELF LIMITING AND  DOES NOT REQUIRE SPECIFIC TREATMENT IT IS NOT A CONTRAINDICATION TO FURTHER DOSES OF THE VACCINE.
MAINLY DPT RARELY OTHERS
*LYMPHADENITIS
HEAT SPONTANEOUSLY OVER MONTHS AND BEST NOT TO TREAT IF LESION IS STICKING TO SKIN OR ALREADY DRAINING SURGICALLY DRAINAGE LOCAL INSTILLATION OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUG.
BCG
*INJECTION SITE ABSCESS
INCISE AND DRAIN:ANTIBIOTIC (IF BACTERIAL)
ALL INJECTABLE VACCINES
*OSTEITIS
SHOULD BE TREATED WITH ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS REGIMENS
BCG
*SEVERE LOCAL REACTION
SETTLE SPONTANEOUSLY WITHIN A FEW DAY TO A WEEK SYMPTOMATIC TREATMENT WITH ANALGESICS(ANTIBIOTICS ARE INAPPROPRIATE)
ALL INJECTABLE VACCINES


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