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Showing posts with label COLD CAHIN. Show all posts
Showing posts with label COLD CAHIN. Show all posts

Sunday, 9 July 2017

COLD CHAIN

The cold chain is a system of storing and transporting vaccines of recommended temperatures from the point of manufacture to the point of use the key elements of cold chain are:-


* PERSONNEL:- To manage vaccine store and distribution.
* EQUIPMENTS:- To store and transport vaccine and to monitor Temperature.
*PROCUDURES:- To ensure that vaccines are stored and transported at appropriate temperatures.

Keeping vaccine at the right temperature is not an easy task, but the consequencys of not doing so can be disastrous once vaccine potency is lost, it cannot be regained , the damage vaccines must be destroyed, leading to inadequate vaccine stoks and wastage of expensive vaccine, moreover, children and women who receive a vaccine that is not potent are not protected.


** AT THE PHC LEVEL ALL VACCINES ARE KEPT IN THE ILR FOR A PERIOD OF ONE MONTH AT TEMPERATURE OF +2 C TO +8 C. 

** VACCINE SENSITIVITY TO HEAT:-BCG (after reconstitution) >OPV >MEASLES> DPT > BCG (before reconstitution) > DT/TT/HEPB/JE.

** VVM:-( VACCINE VIAL MONITOR):- A VVM is a label containing a heat sensitive material which is placed on a vaccine vial to register cumulative heat exposure over time. The combined effects of time and temperature cause the inner square of the vvm to darken gradually and irreversibly. before opening a vial check the status of the vial vvm. 


STAGES OF VVM:-
1. THE INNER SQUARE IS LIGHTER THAN THE OUTER CIRCLE. IF THE EXPIRY DATE HAS NOT BEEN PASSED:- USE THE VACCINE.

2. THE INNER SQUARE IS STILL LIGHTER THAN THE OUTER CIRCLE IF THE EXPIRY DATE HAS NOT BEEN PASSED:- USE THE VACCINE.

DISCARD POINT:- 

3. THE COLOR OF THE INNER SQUARE MATCHES THE COLOR OF THE OUTER CIRCLE :- DO NOT USE THE VACCINE.

BEYOND THE DISCARD POINT:-

4.BEYOND THE DISCARD POINT THE COLOR OF THE SQUARE IS DARKEN THAN THE OUTER CIRCLE : DO NOT USE THE VACCINE.

PLACEMENT OF VACCINES IN ILR :- 
(TOP TO BOTTOM)           1. DILUTES
                                             2. HEP. B
                                             3. PANTAVALENT
                                             4. DPT
                                             5. TT
                                             6. BCG
                                             7.MEASLES
                                             8.OPV

Q2. Which vaccine placed at bottom in ILR?
A. TT    B. BCG   C. MEASLES    D. OPV    
ans. OPV (D)

Q3. Which vaccine place at bottom in ILR?
A. MEASLES  B. TT  C. BCG  D. DPT 
ans. MEASLES (A)


                                                                   
                                                         COLD CHAIN ILR AT PHC
               Vaccine
     TEMPERATURE AT PHC
               BCG
+2C TO +8 C
               OPV
+2C TO +8 C
               MEASLES
+2C TO +8 C
               DPT
+2C TO +8 C
               HEPATITIS B
+2C TO +8 C
               DT
+2C TO +8 C
               TT
+2C TO +8 C

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