IMMUNITY (vaccine) I - NURSING EXAM PORTAL

THIS BLOGGER PROVIDES YOU INFORMATION ABOUT AIIMS,PGI,ESIC,DSSSB,GMCH,RAILWAY,JIPMER OTHER STATE SERVICE COMMISSION ALL STAFF NURSE VACANCY NEWS AND FREE ONLINE QUIZ ACCORDING TO INDIAN NURSING EXAM PATTERN AND STUDY MATERIAL.

Saturday, 8 July 2017

IMMUNITY (vaccine) I

Vaccines provide active immunity to the body by stimulating the immune system which produces antibodies against disease producing organisms vaccines can be divided into two types:-
  
                           A.Live Attenuated 
                           B. killed formulations
A. Live Attenuated :- the live attenuated vaccines are from disease causing viruses or bacteria that have been weakened under laboratory conditions. They replicate in a vaccinated individual but because they are weak they cause either no disease or only a mild form of the disease. Examples are Bcg, Measles and the oral polio vaccine.

B. Inactivated  or killed vaccines:- on the other hand are produced by viruses or bacteria and then inactivated with heat or chemicals.They cannot grow in a vaccinated individual and so cannot cause the disease, They are less effective then Live vaccines, requiring multiple doses to full protection as well as booster doses to maintain immunity.

Examples:-
* whole cell :- Pertussis 
* Fractional protein based :- diphtheria toxoid , tetanus toxoid.
*Recombinant Hepatitis B

                       MILESTONES IN THE IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM IN INDIA
1. 1978:- * Expanded program of immunization (EPI)
               * BCG,DPT,OPV,TYPHOID.
               * Limited to maintain urban areas.

2.1985:-* Universal Immunization program (UPI) Introduced.
             * Expanded to entire country.
             * Measles added.
             * close monitoring of < 1 year group .
 Q1. WHICH VACCINE ADDED IN UIP (UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME) ?
A. BCG        B. DPT        C. OPV         D. MEASLES
ANS. D (MEASLES)

3. 1990:- Vitamine-A supplementation .
4. 1992:- (CSSM) Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme. 
5. 1995:- Polio national Immunization days,
6. 1997:- RCH I (Reproduction and Child Health Programme)
7. 2005:- RCH II and National Rural Health Mission(NRHM)

No comments:

Post a Comment

open